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Allergy to stings and bites from rare or locally important arthropods: worldwide distribution, available diagnostics, and treatment
  • +8
  • Gunter Sturm,
  • Elisa Boni,
  • Dario Antolin-Amerigo,
  • Bilo M.Beatrice,
  • Christine Breynaert,
  • Filippo Fassio,
  • Kymble Spriggs,
  • Arantza Vega,
  • Luisa Ricciardi,
  • Lisa Arzt-Gradwohl,
  • Wolfgang Hemmer
Gunter Sturm
Medizinische Universitat Graz

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Elisa Boni
Ospedale Maggiore Carlo Alberto Pizzardi
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Dario Antolin-Amerigo
Instituto Ramon y Cajal de Investigacion Sanitaria
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Bilo M.Beatrice
AOU Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona SOD Clinica di Radiologia d'Urgenza e dell'Area Oncologica
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Christine Breynaert
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven
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Filippo Fassio
Ospedale San Giovanni di Dio
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Kymble Spriggs
Monash Medical Centre Clayton
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Arantza Vega
Hospital General Universitario de Guadalajara
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Luisa Ricciardi
Universita degli Studi di Messina Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale
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Lisa Arzt-Gradwohl
Medizinische Universitat Graz
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Wolfgang Hemmer
Floridsdorfer Allergiezentrum GmbH
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Insect venom allergy is the most frequent cause of anaphylaxis in Europe and possibly worldwide. The majority of systemic allergic reactions after insect stings are caused by Hymenoptera and among these, vespid genera induce most of the systemic sting reactions (SSR). Honey bees are the second leading cause of SSR. Depending on the global region, other Hymenoptera such as different ant genera are responsible for SSR. Widely distributed hornets and bumblebees or local vespid or bee genera rarely induce SSR. Hematophagous insects such as mosquitoes and horse flies usually cause (large) local reactions while SSR occasionally occur. This position paper aims to identify either rare or locally important insects causing SSR as well as rarely occurring SSR after stings or bites of widely distributed insects. We summarized relevant venom or saliva allergens and intended to identify possible cross-reactivities between the insect allergens. Moreover, we aimed to locate diagnostic tests for research and routine diagnosis, which are sometimes only regionally available. Finally, we gathered information on disposable immunotherapies. Major allergens of most insects were identified, and cross-reactivity between insects was frequently observed. While some diagnostics and immunotherapies are locally available, standardized skin tests and immunotherapies are generally lacking in rare insect allergy.
20 Apr 2023Submitted to Allergy
20 Apr 2023Submission Checks Completed
20 Apr 2023Assigned to Editor
20 Apr 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
22 Apr 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
07 May 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
11 May 20231st Revision Received
11 May 2023Submission Checks Completed
11 May 2023Assigned to Editor
11 May 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
12 May 2023Editorial Decision: Accept