Background: Preoperative serum CA19-9 and histology grade could reflect the biological characteristics of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This study aims to explore the combined effect of preoperative CA19-9 and histology grade on the prognosis of patients with PDAC. Methods: A total of 612 patients with PDAC undergoing curative pancreatectomy were retrospectively enrolled. A biological risk model was established based on preoperative CA19-9 and histology grade. Prognostic significance of the biological risk was evaluated. Results: 360 (58.8%) patients had preoperative CA19-9>112 U/ml and 348 (56.9%) patients had high histology grade. Biological risk based on preoperative CA19-9 and histology grade was independently associated with survival of PDAC patients. The biological risk was incorporated into the eighth edition of the TNM staging system and a modified TNM (mTNM) staging system was developed. The ROC curves showed that the area under curve(AUC) of the mTNM staging system was significantly greater than that of the TNM staging system. Conclusion: Biological risk based on preoperative CA19-9 and histology grade was an independent prognostic factors for patients with PDAC. Incorporating the biological risk into the TNM staging system could improve the the accuracy of the TNM staging system in predicting prognosis of PDAC.
Doxorubicin, a first-line anticancer drug for osteosarcoma treatment, has been the subject of recent research exploring the mechanisms behind its chemoresistance and its ability to enhance cell migration at sublethal concentrations. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a type IV collagenase and zinc-dependent endopeptidase, is well-known for degrading the extracellular matrix and promoting cancer metastasis. Our previous work demonstrated that nuclear MMP-2 regulates ribosomal RNA transcription via histone clipping, thereby controlling gene expression. Additionally, MMP-2 activity is regulated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase and oncogene, Src, which plays a crucial role in cell adhesion, invasion, and metastasis. Src kinase is primarily regulated by two endogenous inhibitors: C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk homologous kinase (CHK/MATK). In this study, we reveal that the MMP-2 gene acts as an upstream regulator of Src kinase activity by suppressing its endogenous inhibitor, CHK/MATK, in osteosarcoma cells. We also show that enhanced osteosarcoma cell migration which is induced by sublethal concentrations of doxorubicin can be overcome by inactivating the MMP-2 gene or overexpressing CHK/MATK. Our findings highlight the MMP-2 gene as a promising additional target for combating cancer cell migration and metastasis. This is due to its impact on the gene and protein expression of the tumor suppressor CHK/MATK in osteosarcoma. By targeting the MMP-2 gene, we can potentially enhance the effectiveness of doxorubicin treatment and reduce chemoresistance in osteosarcoma.
The main differentials in cases of sudden elevation of hepatic enzyme levels during immunochemotherapy are reactivation of hepatitis B virus or drug-induced liver injury. Here, we report a case of acute liver injury caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) during chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma, wherein the patient was successfully treated and completed chemotherapy. A 57-year-old woman visited her local doctor because she felt light and tired. The patient underwent lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and was diagnosed with a malignant lymphoma of the small intestine (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). The patient had a history of oral consumption of undercooked pork liver to improve anemia and was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E. Since the patient responded to chemotherapy, she was treated with single-agent ribavirin while continuing chemotherapy, resulting in a sustained virological response. Even during treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, if appropriate treatment for hepatitis E can be administered, the patient can be fully treated without interruption. The patient was able to complete chemotherapy adequately without interruption of treatment, which was a clinically beneficial result.
Ovarian cancer seriously threatens women’s health because of its poor prognosis and high mortality. Due to the lack of efficient early detection and screening methods, when patients seek doctors’ help with complaints of abdominal distension, back pain and other nonspecific signs, the clinical results always hint at the widespread metastasis of disease. When referring to the metastasis of this disease, the omentum always takes precedence. The distinguishing feature of the omentum is adipose tissue, which satisfies the energy demand of cancer cells and supplies a more aggressive environment for ovarian cancer cells. In this review, we mainly focus on three important cell types: adipocytes, macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells. Besides, several mechanisms underlying cancer-associated adipocytes (CAA)-facilitated ovarian cancer cell development have been revealed, including their capacities for storing lipids and endocrine function, and the release of hormones, growth factors, and adipokines. Blocking the reciprocity among cancer cells and various cells located on the omentum might contribute to ovarian cancer therapy. The inhibition of hormones, growth factors and adipokines produced by adipocytes will be a novel therapeutic strategy. However, a sufficient number of trials has not been performed. In spite of this, the therapeutic potential of metformin and the roles of exercise in ovarian cancer will be worth mentioning. It’s almost impossible to overcome completely ovarian cancer at the moment. What we can do is trying our best to improve these patients’ prognoses. In this process, adipocytes may bring promising future for the therapy of ovarian cancer.
Objectives: We recently reported that deep learning (DL) using pelvic magnetic resonance imaging is useful for predicting the severity of urinary incontinence (UI) after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). However, our results were limited because the prediction accuracy was approximately 70%. We aimed to develop a more accurate prediction system that can be used to inform patients on recovery from UI after RARP using a DL model based on intraoperative video images. Materials and Methods: This study included 101 patients with prostate cancer who underwent RARP. Three snapshots showing the pelvic cavity (before bladder neck incision, just after prostate removal, and after vesicourethral anastomosis) from intraoperative video records, as well as preoperative and intraoperative covariates, were assessed. We evaluated the DL models plus simple or ensemble machine learning, and their sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were analyzed. Results: Sixty-four and 37 patients demonstrated ‘early continence’ and ‘late continence’, respectively, at the 3-month follow-up. The combination of DL and simple machine learning using intraoperative video snapshots with clinicopathological parameters had a notably high performance (AUC, 0.683 to 0.749) for predicting early recovery from post-prostatectomy UI. Notably, the combination of DL and ensemble artificial neural network using intraoperative video snapshots had the highest performance (AUC, 0.882; sensitivity, 92.2%; specificity, 78.4%; overall accuracy, 85.3%) for predicting early recovery from post-prostatectomy UI. In contrast, DL and ensemble ML with clinicopathological parameters (Method 4) achieved no additive effects (AUC, 0.690 to 0.747) compared with DL and simple ML with clinicopathological parameters. Internal validation was performed on additional 30 cases with similar results. Conclusions: Our results suggest that DL algorithms using intraoperative video images can be used to reliably inform patients regarding their recovery from UI after RARP. (287 words)
Background: To understand the changing trends in reporting of race and sex as a demographic variable in phase III lung cancer clinical trials published over the last 35 years. Methods: A total of 426 articles reporting results of phase 3 lung cancer clinical trials published from 1984 to 2019 were identified in PubMed. Statistical analysis on trends over time on percentage of minority and female participation were performed. Results: Only 137 (32.2%) of the 426 studies analyzed reported race of participants. Among those studies, we found that the mean participation rate of white participants was significantly higher (82.65%) (p < 0.001). We found a decrease in African American participants and an increase in Asian participants over time. When looking at sex, we found that although the rate of male participation (69.02%) was significantly higher than that of female participation (30.98%), the female participation has improved with time at a rate of 0.65% per year. Conclusions: We found that the reporting and participation of minority races continues to lag that of other demographic factors like sex in phase III clinical trials in lung cancer. Especially in African Americans, where the participation in lung cancer phase III clinical trials has declined despite the rising incidence in lung cancer.
There is limited and conflicting data regarding loss of immunity in childhood cancer survivors who did not undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This retrospective study included 28 childhood cancer survivors whose treatment consisted of at least 3 months of chemotherapy. Decreased seropositivity for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, tetanus, and hepatitis B was found in patients across all categories of malignancy compared to the general population. Results were more pronounced for those with hematological malignancies. This study indicates that pediatric cancer survivors, especially those with hematological malignancies, may have greater loss of protective antibodies from primary vaccinations.
Introduction: Obesity is a major risk factor in the development of endometrial cancer (EC) in young patients of reproductive age. Fertility sparing treatment is a viable option for a select group of patients with early EC, and involves systemic and intra-uterine hormonal therapy. Weight loss has been associated with improved outcomes in this group. Bariatric surgery (BS) has been shown to be the most efficient and durable method of weight loss in obese patients. However, there is a paucity of data studying the benefit of BS as part of fertility sparing treatment. Methods: We present a retrospective case series of five patients who are undergoing fertility sparing treatment for early EC, who also underwent BS for treatment of obesity and related comorbidities. We aim to show early regression of EC for all the patients and also report on the other health benefits of BS. Results: All five patients in the series achieved regression of EC within six months of undergoing BS. They also achieved significant weight loss consistent with previous studies, and three patients who had comorbidities related to obesity had remission of these conditions. One of the patients with EC regression also managed to conceive with IVF. Conclusion: Patients on fertility sparing treatment for early EC who underwent BS was associated with early regression within 6 months, significant weight loss and resolution of comorbidities. BS could be a promising component of fertility sparing treatment. Long term, prospective studies are required to confirm the benefits reported in this case series.
Background: As the ongoing public health crisis from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic puts strains on current models of cancer care, many health care centers had to adapt to minimize the risk of exposure and infection. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in a comprehensive cancer center were determined. Purpose: To measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on care delivery at a comprehensive cancer center. Methods: The number of on-site and telehealth visits (TH) were obtained from scheduling software. Multiple factors including total visits, telehealth visits, screenings for cancer diagnosis, and cancer treatments were tracked from two years before the pandemic onset through 2022. The length of stay (LOS) and Case Mix Index (CMI) were calculated using hospital database. Results: In the third quarter of FY 2020, telehealth visits (TH) represented a fifth of total patient encounters. Cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, decreased during the pandemic with number of surgeries being most affected (23% decrease in 2020 compared to the previous fiscal year). The average length of stay (LOS) was also longer with less discharges per given time during the pandemic. The increased LOS was related to increased severity of patient illnesses since CMI was higher. Screening mammograms decreased to a nadir of 58% in 2021 as compared to those screened in pre-pandemic fiscal years. Conclusions : The COVID-19 pandemic impacted many aspects of care, such as treatment and screenings. Many of these factors had to be postponed due to the fear of acquiring COVID-19 and access to care. The findings presented implicate that the delays and changes in cancer care during the pandemic resulted in less screening and treatment of more advanced disease.
Background Tumor deposits (TD) are considered as Extranodal Extension (ENE) in the AJCC 8th edition of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) TNM staging. Methods We analyzed TDs in patients with HNSCC who underwent surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy ± chemotherapy. Overall Survival (OS) and progression rate were compared to patients with ENE. Results ENE was detected in 50 patients, while TDs in 21. Based on the presence of ENE alone or TDs, the mean time to progression was significant (p<0.005). OS at three years was 55.7% for the whole study group, 60.4% in ENE and 38.4% in TDs. OS difference between the N2a-ENE, N3b-ENE, and the TDs ± ENE group was significant (p=0.05). The hazard ratio between ECs and TDs was Exp (B) 2.296 (p= 0.027). Conclusions The prognostic implication of TDs represents an independent risk factor, and a separate classification might be required.
Significant racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality have been reported between African American Men (AAM) who are at increased risk for prostate cancer, and European American Men (EAM). In most of the studies carried out on prostate cancer, this population is underrepresented. With the advancement of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), several genetic predictor models of prostate cancer risk have been elaborated, as well as numerous studies that identify both germline and somatic mutations with clinical utility. Despite significant advances, the AAM population continues to be underrepresented in genomic studies, which can limit their generalizability and potentially widen disparities. Here we outline racial disparities in currently available genomic applications that are used to estimate the risk of individuals developing prostate cancer and to identify personalized oncology treatment strategies. While the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer are different between AAM and EAM. the biological features and differences of prostate tumors in AAM and EAM are still being described. Samples from AAM remain to be unrepresented in different studies. This disparity impacts the available genomic data on prostate cancer. As a result, the disparity can limit the predictive utility of the genomic applications that have been developed and may lead to widening disparities. More studies with substantially higher recruitment and engagement of African American patients are necessary to overcome this disparity.
Background Malignant brain tumors are among the most threatening diseases of the central nervous system, and despite increasingly updated treatments, the prognosis has not been improved. Tumor treating fields (TTFields) are an emerging approach in cancer treatment using intermediate-frequency and low-intensity electric field, and can lead to development of novel therapeutic options. Recent findings A series of biological processes induced by TTFields to exert anti-cancer effects have been identified, and applications of TTFields in oncology have been increasingly reported. This review addresses the mechanisms of TTFields and recent advances in the application of TTFields therapy in malignant brain tumors, especially in glioblastoma (GBM). Conclusions As a novel therapeutic strategies, TTFields have shown promising results in many clinical trials, especially in GBM, and continue to evolve. A growing number of patients with malignant brain tumors are being enrolled in ongoing clinical studies demonstrating that TTFields-based combination therapies can improve treatment outcomes.
Background Several good results of clinical trial of nivolumab or involving nivolumab in advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were reported. However, the response rate was still poor. A rare phenomenon called the “abscopal effect” refers to the regression of not only the irradiated tumor but also non-irradiated distant tumors after local radiotherapy. The mechanism is not completely clear, but it is thought that the activation of anti-tumor immunity induced by radiotherapy is the main factor. Case A 66-year-old man with recurred and nivolumab resistant esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in left-side cervical and abdominal para-aortal lymph node metastasis was treated with a total of 40 Gy (10 fractions) of radiotherapy to the left-side cervical lymph node metastasis which caused neck pain as a palliative treatment. Nivolumab was resumed the day after completion of radiotherapy. At 3 months after radiotherapy showed that the irradiated lesion in the left neck had regressed to a scar-like appearance. Notably, the abdominal para-aortal lymph nodes outside the irradiation area, which had previously tended to progress, had also shrunk (abscopal effect). The T cell receptor and B cell receptor (TCR/BCR) repertoire analysis before and after radiotherapy revealed that radiotherapy caused the changes in the TCR/BCR repertoire. Conclusion Changes in the TCR/BCR receptor repertoire repertoires were assumed to be a part of the mechanism of the abscopal effect. The findings in this patient suggest that combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors and radiotherapy can be a promising treatment approach, even for patients with immune checkpoint inhibitors resistant cancer.
Background: The six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 3 (STEAP3) plays an essential role in iron uptake as an iron reductase. Previous studies found that STEAP3 may play crucial roles in tumorigenesis. However, a comprehensive pan‐cancer analysis of the prognosis and immunity of STEAP3 has not yet been reported. Methods: We performed a systematic analysis of the prognosis and immunity of STEAP3 in human pan-cancer. The data analysis and visualization were completed with R and Cytoscape. STEAP3 expression in cell lines and tissues was measured in multiple ways. Functional validation experiments were performed by shRNA knockdown inA498 and 786-O cell lines. Cell proliferation and invasive ability was detected by CCK-8 assay, transwell assay and wound healing assay. Results: In most tumor tissues, STEAP3 expression was remarkably upregulated and correlated with prognosis, particularly in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Furthermore, STEAP3 expression was closely correlated with immune infiltrates and may induce recruitment and polarization of M2 macrophages in ccRCC. STEAP3 may be valuable for predicting responses to immune-checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. In addition, enrichment analysis results indicated that STEAP3 was positively related to immune-related pathways, P53 pathways and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, we demonstrated that STEAP3 was highly expressed in ccRCC tissues and might stimulate EMT via the downregulation of CDH1 in vitro in ccRCC. Conclusion: STEAP3 might function as a prognostic biomarker and immunotherapy response predictor in various cancers. Especially in ccRCC, STEAP3 is a new prognostic biomarker and exerts tumor-promoting function via stimulating the invasion and EMT and inducing recruitment and polarization of M2 macrophages.
Background: Clinical trials evaluating immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) in recurrent high-grade gliomas (rHGG) report 7-20% 6-month progression-free survival (PFS), while re-irradiation demonstrates 28%-39% 6-month PFS. Aims: We evaluate outcomes of patients treated with ICI and concurrent re-irradiation utilizing stereotactic body radiotherapy / fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (SBRT) compared to ICI monotherapy. Methods and Results: Patients >18-years-old with rHGG (WHO grade III and IV) receiving ICI+SBRT or ICI monotherapy between 1/1/16-1/1/19 were included. Adverse events, 6-month PFS and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Log-rank tests were used to evaluate PFS and OS. Histogram analyses of apparent diffusion coefficient maps and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion metrics were performed. Twenty-one patients with rHGG (ICI+SBRT: 16; ICI: 5) were included. The ICI+SBRT and ICI groups received a mean 7.25 and 6.2 ICI cycles, respectively. There were five grade 1, one grade 2 and no grade 3-5 AEs in the ICI+SBRT group, and four grade 1 and no grade 2-5 AEs in the ICI group. Median PFS was 2.85 and 1 month for the ICI+SBRT and ICI groups; median OS was 7 and 6 months among ICI+SBRT and ICI groups, respectively. There were significant differences in pre- and post-treatment tumor volume in the cohort (12.35 vs. 20.51; p=0.03), but not between treatment groups. Conclusions: In this heavily pretreated cohort, ICI with re-irradiation utilizing SBRT was well tolerated. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate potential therapeutic benefits to re-irradiation with ICI+SBRT in rHGG.
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all forms of cervical cancer, which can arise upon viral integration into the host genome and concurrent loss of viral regulatory gene E2. Gene-based delivery approaches show that E2 reintroduction reduces proliferative capacity and promotes apoptosis in vitro. This work explored if our calcium-dependent protein-based delivery system, TAT-CaM could deliver functional E2 protein directly into cervical cancer cells to limit proliferative capacity and induce cell death. Methods: TAT-CaM and the HPV16 E2 protein containing a CaM-binding sequence (CBS-E2) were expressed and purified from E. coli. Calcium-dependent binding kinetics were verified by Biolayer Interferometry. Equimolar TaT-CaM:CBS-E2 constructs were delivered into the HPV16+ SiHa cell line and uptake verified by confocal microscopy. Proliferative capacity was measured by MTS assay and cell death was measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase. As a control for specificity to HPV+ cells, human microvascular cells (HMECs) were used. Results: TAT-CaM bound CBS-E2 with high affinity in the presence of calcium and rapidly disassociated in its absence. After introduction by TAT-CaM, E2 was detected in cellular interiors by orthogonal projects taken at the depth of the nucleus. In dividing cells, E2 relocalized to regions associated with the mitotic spindle. Cells receiving a single daily dose of CBS-E2 for 4 days showed a significant reduction in metabolic activity at low doses and cell death at high doses compared to controls. This phenotype was retained for 7 days with no further treatments. When subcultured at day 12, treated cells regained their proliferative capacity. Conclusions: Using the TAT-CaM platform, bioactive E2 protein was delivered into living cervical cancer cells, inducing senescence and cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that this nucleic acid and virus-free delivery method could be harnessed to develop novel, effective protein therapeutics.
Background Multiple myeloma (MM) patients have variable responses to mRNA vaccination to COVID-19. Little is known regarding their vaccine-induced antibody levels over time. Methods We monitored spike IgG antibody levels over 24 weeks among a subset of 18 MM patients who showed a full response after two mRNA vaccinations. MM patients had a more rapid decline in antibody levels as compared to 8 healthy controls, with power law half-lives of 72 days (versus 107 days) and exponential half-lives of 37 days (versus 51 days). Results The patients with longer SARS-CoV-2 antibody half-lives were more likely to have undetectable monoclonal protein than those with shorter half-lives, suggesting better disease control may correlate with longer duration of vaccine-induced antibodies. Regardless, by 16 weeks post-second dose of mRNA vaccination, the majority of patients had antibody levels below 250 binding arbitrary units per milliliter, which would be unlikely to contribute significantly to preventing COVID-19. Conclusions Thus, even MM patients who respond adequately to vaccination are likely to require more frequent booster doses than the general population.
Objective: Immunochemotherapy has become a new treatment for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We aimed to study the clinical efficacy and toxicity of immunochemotherapy based on PD-1/PD-L1 compared with chemotherapy alone in the treatment of advanced ESCC, focusing on analyzing the influence of PD-L1 expression level. Methods: Randomized controlled trials comparing PD-1/PD-L1 based immunochemotherapy wirh chemotherapy alone for advanced ESCC were included. We extracted efficacy data [objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS) rate, progression-free survival (PFS) rate] and safety data (treatment-related adverse events, treatment-related mortality) and performed meta-analyses. Results: 5 articles were included. Compared with chemotherapy alone, the ORR and DCR of immunochemotherapy increased by 2.05 times and 1.54 times, respectively. Overall, patients receiving immunochemotherapy had a significant long-term survival advantage [OS: hazard ratio (HR)=0.68, 95% hazard ratio (CI) 0.61-0.75; PFS: HR=0.62, 95%CI 0.55, 0.70, respectively]. Even with PD-L1 tumor proportion score <1%, immunochemotherapy also showed a significant survival advantage [OS: HR=0.65, 95%CI 0.46-0.93; PFS: HR=0.56, 95%CI 0.46-0.69, respectively]. However, for PD-L1 combined positive score (CPS)<1, the survival advantage of immunochemotherapy was not significant [OS: HR=0.89, 95%CI 0.42-1.90; PFS: HR=0.71, 95%CI 0.47-1.08, respectively]. The toxicity of immunochemotherapy was higher than that of chemotherapy alone, but there was no statistical difference in treatment-related mortality (odds ratio=1.11, 95%CI 0.67-1.83). Conclusions: In this study, PD-1/PD-L1 based immunochemotherapy significantly could improve survival outcomes in patients with advanced ESCC. For patients with CPS<1, the survival advantage of immunochemotherapy was not significant. The toxicity of immunochemotherapy was acceptable.