Marek Jutel

and 68 more

Ioana Agache

and 29 more

Akash Kothari

and 2 more

Article Type: News and Views: Groundbreaking Discoveries in ImmunologyTitle: Emollients for the prevention of atopic dermatitisAuthors: Akash Kothari1(https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1980-161X), Arielle Locke2,Thomas Eiwegger1,3,4(https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2914-7829)1Translational Medicine Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada2Department of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland3Division of Immunology and Allergy, Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program, The Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada4Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaCorrespondence to: Thomas Eiwegger, MD, Division of Immunology and Allergy, Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program, The Department of Paediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Canada, E-mail: thomas.eiwegger@sickkids.ca, Tel.: +1 416-813-7654 ext. 1862Conflicts of Interest: AK and AL have nothing to disclose. TE reports to act as local PI for company sponsored trials by DBV and sub-investigator for Regeneron, holds grants from Innovation Fund Denmark, CIHR outside the submitted work. He is Co-Investigator or scientific lead in three investigator initiated oral immunotherapy trials supported by the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program SickKids and serves as associate editor for Allergy. He/his lab received unconditional/in-kind contributions from Macro Array Diagnostics and an unrestricted grant from ALK. He holds advisory board roles for ALK.Financial support: This work was supported by The Hospital for Sick Children, The Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program at The Hospital for Sick Children, and The Dr Lorus J And Dr Margery J Milne Scholarship from Victoria University at the University of Toronto.Statement of Author Contribution: All authors critically reviewed the original articles (references 6 and 7) and wrote the News & Views: Groundbreaking discoveries in Immunology article. All authors contributed, revised, edited, and approved the final version of the manuscript as submitted and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.Keywords: emollient, atopic eczema, infancyAbbreviations : food allergy, FA; filaggrin gene, FLG; atopic dermatitis, AD; transepidermal water loss, TEWL; Barrier Enhancement for Eczema Prevention, BEEP; Preventing Atopic Dermatitis and Allergies, PreventADALL

Heimo Breiteneder

and 14 more

Modern healthcare requires a proactive and individualized response to diseases, combining precision diagnosis and personalized treatment. Accordingly, the approach to patients with allergic diseases encompasses novel developments in the area of personalized medicine, disease phenotyping and endotyping and the development and application of reliable biomarkers. A detailed clinical history and physical examination followed by the detection of IgE immunoreactivity against specific allergens still represents the state of the art. However, nowadays, further emphasis focuses on the optimization of diagnostic and therapeutic standards and a large number of studies have been investigating the biomarkers of allergic diseases, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, urticaria and anaphylaxis. Various biomarkers have been developed by omics technologies, some of which lead to a better classification of the distinct phenotypes or endotypes. The introduction of biologicals to clinical practice increases the need for biomarkers for patient selection, prediction of outcomes and monitoring, to allow for an adequate choice of the duration of these costly and long-lasting therapies. Escalating healthcare costs together with questions on the efficacy of the current management of allergic diseases requires further development of a biomarker-driven approach. Here, we review biomarkers in diagnosis and treatment of asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, viral infections, chronic rhinosinusitis, food allergy, drug hypersensitivity and allergen-immunotherapy with a special emphasis on specific IgE, microbiome and epithelial barrier. In addition, EAACI guidelines on biologicals are discussed within the perspective of biomarkers.

Jennifer Hoang

and 17 more

Background: Multiplex tests allow for measurement of allergen-specific IgE responses to multiple allergen extracts and components and have several advantages for large cohort studies. Due to significant methodological differences, test systems are difficult to integrate in meta-analyses/systematic reviews since there is a lack of datasets with direct comparison. We aimed to create models for statistical integration of allergen-specific IgE to peanut/tree nut allergens from three IgE-test platforms. Methods: Plasma from Canadian and Austrian children with peanut/tree nut sensitization and a cohort of sensitized, high-risk, pre-school asthmatics (total n=166) were measured with three R&D multiplex IgE test platforms: Allergy Explorer, ALEX (Macro Array Dx), MeDALL-chip (Mechanisms of Development of Allergy) (Thermo Fisher), and EUROLINE (EUROIMMUN). Skin prick test (n=51) and ImmunoCAP (n=62) results for extracts were available in a subset. Regression models (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, local polynomial regression) were applied if >30% of samples were positive to the allergen. Intra-test correlations between PR-10 and nsLTP allergens were assessed. Results: Using two regression methods, we demonstrated the ability to model allergen-specific relationships with acceptable measures of fit (r2=94-56%) for peanut and tree nut sIgE testing at the extract and component-level, in order from highest to lowest: Ara h 2, Ara h 6, Jug r 1, Ana o 3, Ara h 1, Jug r 2, Cor a 9. Conclusion: Our models support the notion that conversion is reasonably possible between sIgE multiplex platforms for allergen extracts and components and may provide options to aggregate data for future meta-analysis.

CARMEN RIGGIONI

and 41 more

In December 2019, China reported the first cases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This disease, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has developed into a pandemic. To date it has resulted in ~5.6 million confirmed cases and caused 353,334 related deaths worldwide. Unequivocally, the COVID-19 pandemic is the gravest health and socio-economic crisis of our time. In this context, numerous questions have emerged in demand of basic scientific information and evidence-based medical advice on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Although the majority of the patients show a very mild, self-limiting viral respiratory disease, many clinical manifestations in severe patients are unique to COVID-19, such as severe lymphopenia and eosinopenia, extensive pneumonia, a “cytokine storm” leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome, endothelitis, thrombo-embolic complications and multiorgan failure. The epidemiologic features of COVID-19 are distinctive and have changed throughout the pandemic. Vaccine and drug development studies and clinical trials are rapidly growing at an unprecedented speed. However, basic and clinical research on COVID-19-related topics should be based on more coordinated high-quality studies. This paper answers pressing questions, formulated by young clinicians and scientists, on SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and allergy, focusing on the following topics: virology, immunology, diagnosis, management of patients with allergic disease and asthma, treatment, clinical trials, drug discovery, vaccine development and epidemiology. Over 140 questions were answered by experts in the field providing a comprehensive and practical overview of COVID-19 and allergic disease.