Jaguars (Panthera onca) are the largest felids in America, mainly threatened by habitat and prey density loss and hunting. Jaguars are mainly nocturnal predators that need large portions of suitable habitat with abundant prey populations. The aim of this work was to assess both jaguar and prey activity patterns, their relations and to understand if the presence/absence of prey and their activity patterns might determine the movements of jaguars in a spatio-temporal frame. We used data from camera trapping records of 125 jaguar events of presence from 9,360 camera trap days effort and data from five jaguars with GPS collars, to analyze: 1) Activity patterns; 2) Speed movement; 3) Traveled distances and 4) Co-occurrence for jaguars and preys. Differences between sexes and between seasons were also evaluated. A total of 12,566 segments of movement were recorded. Two activity peaks were identified between 07:00-08:00 and 22:00-23:00 hours. Average traveled distance was 265.66 m/h (± 390.98 m/h). The maximum hourly distance was 2,760.25 m/h; with significant differences considering the hour of day (χ2 = 324.51, df 11, p < 0.001), with higher mean values between 00:00 and 08:00 h. The average distance covered by males was higher than females (Z –24.827, p < 0.001): 341.64 ± 440.03 m/h and 146.31 ± 259.04 m/h respectively. Significant differences considering seasons were found (Z = –16.442, p < 0.001): average distance during the dry season was 230.35 ± 365.87 m/h and was higher during the rainy season: 337.082 ± 430.45 m/h. Differences according to season were also consistent considering males and females separately (males: Z = –6.212, p < 0.001; females: Z = –15.801, p < 0.001). Occupation model analysis revealed that two of the five pairs of species (P. onca and P. tajacu and P. onca and C. paca) occur with more frequency than if they were independent, while in terms of co-detection, P. onca and P. tajacu and P. onca and C. paca showed independence
Influenza A virus (IAV) outbreaks constitute a constant threat to public health and pose a remarkable impact on socio-economic systems worldwide. Interactions between wild and domestic birds, humans, and swine can lead to spillover events. Backyard livestock systems in proximity to wetlands represent a high-risk area for viral spread. However, some gaps remain in our knowledge of IAV transmission at the wildlife – livestock interface in Mexico. Hence, the study aimed at molecular identification and phylogenetic characterization of IAV in the wild duck – backyard livestock interface at a wetland of Mexico. A total of 875 animals were tested by real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). We detected IAV in 3.68% of the wild ducks sampled during the winter season 2016 – 2017. Nonetheless, the samples obtained from backyard poultry and swine tested negative. The highest IAV frequency (11.10%) was found in the Mexican duck (Anas diazi). Subtypes H1N1, H3N2, and H5N2 were detected. Phylogenetic analysis of influenza viruses isolated from wild ducks of the Lerma marshes revealed that hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences were related to waterfowl, swine, and poultry IAV strains previously isolated in the United States and Mexico. In conclusion, the co-circulation of three IAV subtypes in wild ducks close to backyard farms in Mexico, as well as, the local identification of HA gene sequences genetically related to Mexican livestock IAV strains and also to North American waterfowl IAV strains, highlight the importance of the Lerma marshes for influenza surveillance given the close interaction among wild birds, poultry, pigs, and humans.