Accumulating evidence suggest that autoimmune phenomena are frequent during Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may lead to clinically overt disease. The breakdown of immune tolerance and/or impaired immune reconstitution after the initial phase may be involved in the pathogenesis . The ensuing autoimmunity may also be involved in Post-Acute COVID syndrome (PACS) . Herein, we evaluate the current scenario based on anecdotal patient reports of new-onset autoimmune disease/diagnosis as a sequalae of COVID-19.
Title: Notch4, uncovering an immunomodulator in allergic asthmaAuthors: Beatriz Moyaa, Manali Mukherjeeb and Parameswaran Nairba. Department of Allergy, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spainb. Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton & Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health, St Joseph’s Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, CanadaCorrespondence to : Beatriz Moya. Allergy Department. Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, SpainEmail:email@example.comAcknowledgements : Dr. Mukherjee is supported by investigator award from Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Canadian Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Foundation. She has received honorarium from AZ, GSK and her university has received grants from Methapharm Speciality Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Nair is supported by the Frederick E. Hargreave Teva Innovation Chair in Airway Diseases. He has received honoraria from AZ, Sanofi, Teva, Merck, Novartis and Equillium and his university has received research grants from AZ, Teva, Sanofi, Novartis, BI and Methapharm. The authors recognize Dr. Anna Globinska for graphical abstract design and Dr. Rodrigo Jiménez-Saiz for critical review of the manuscript.Keywords: Allergic asthma; Airway inflammation; Th2 cell; Th17 cell; Treg cell; Notch4 receptorAbbreviations: Th, T helper; UFPs, pollutant ultrafine particles; AMs, alveolar macrophages; Treg cells, regulatory T cells; ILC2s, type 2 innate lymphoid cells; GDF15, cytokine growth and differentiation factor 15; IL, interleukin; IL-6R, interleukin-6 receptor; IL-4R, interleukin-4 receptorWord count: 918/1000
The role of eosinophils in allergic inflammation is well recognized. In homeostasis these cells are found in multiple healthy tissues including the lung parenchyma, but the function of these resident eosinophils is unknown. Circulating eosinophils are easily quantifiable and have been used to define “eosinophilic phenotype”, and to select patients who are likely to respond to anti-eosinophil and anti-Th2—directed therapies. However, presence of eosinophils in circulation may not necessarily indicate that the eosinophils are key effector cells for an airway disease such as asthma and this may be reason for not all patients responding well to anti-IL5 therapies despite normalization of blood eosinophils. This pro-con commentary examines the role of enumerating circulating vs luminal (sputum) eosinophils (and their activation status) not only to initiate therapies with monoclonal antibodies, but to monitor their clinical response while on therapy.