Human monkeypox is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus resembling smallpox in clinical course, making it difficult to distinguish it from smallpox and varicella. Laboratory diagnostics are critical components of illness identification and surveillance, and novel tests are required for more precise and quick diagnosis. The majority of human infections occur in Central Africa, where monitoring in remote regions with little infrastructure is challenging but may be performed using evidence-based methods and teaching materials that educate public health personnel on the fundamental principles of this infection. New medications and vaccinations showed promising results for the treatment and prevention of the disease, but more studies are required to show their efficacy in the actual endemic settings. Thus, more studies are needed on the virus's epidemiology, ecology, and biology in endemic locations to better understand and prevent human infections. This review discussed the etiology, epidemiology, and clinical course of the monkeypox and indicated diagnostic and treatment approaches for this disease.
Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the efficacy of the two different prophylactic antibiotic regimens (2-days vs. 7-days) in preventing surgical site infection in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: Patients undergoing CABG were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. From 2016 to 2017, 370 cases were allocated to one of two groups. The groups received prophylactic antibiotic therapy for either 2-days or 7-days. All CABG patients were followed for days for surgical site infections. Two of the patients died after surgery, and 3 patients did not show up during the three-month follow-up evaluation and thus did not meet the study criteria. Results: Of the remaining 365 patients who participated in the full study, 198 (54.2%) were male, and 167 (45.7%) were female patients. The mean age of these cases was 58.64± 11.4. Of the 365 study participants who received prophylactic antibiotics prior to surgery, 16 patients developed surgical site infections (legs and sternum). Among these 16 patients, nine cases belong to the 7-days prophylactic antibiotic therapy group (2.4%), and seven cases belong to the 2-day prophylactic antibiotic therapy group (1.9%) (P=0.771). Conclusion: Comparison of two 2-day and 7-day prophylactic antibiotic regimens showed no significant difference in the incidence of post-surgical infection in the two groups.
Remdesivir has appeared to be the most effective medication against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and is broadly administered to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients around the world. Remdesivir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor with a broad spectrum of antiviral activities against RNA viruses in in-vitro and in-vivo models of SARS-CoV, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir is the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved anti-SARS-CoV-2 treatment for adult and pediatric patients and has been used intravenously for patients requiring hospitalization for COVID-19. However, questions have been raised about the value of remdesivir in treating COVID-19, and governing bodies worldwide have been hesitant to approve this medication. Nevertheless, in the context of the public health emergency and the urgent need for effective treatments for patients with COVID-19, remdesivir has been approved by several authorities worldwide. Here, we discuss the characteristics and applications of remdesivir, and various challenging studies with different outcomes about its efficacy are also reviewed.
Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has caused many complications, the invention of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines has also brought about several adverse events, from common side effects to unexpected and rare ones. Common vaccine-related adverse reactions manifest locally or systematically following any vaccine, including Covid-19 vaccines. Certain side effects, known as adverse events of special interest (AESI), are unusual and need more evaluation. Here, we discuss some of the most important rare adverse events of Covid-19 vaccines.
The side effects of COVID-19 vaccination were mostly self-restricted local reactions that quickly resolved. Nevertheless, rare autoimmune hepatitis cases have been reported in some vaccinated individuals. This article presents a young man who developed fulminant hepatitis a few days after vaccination with the first dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine.
Tuberculosis (TB) primarily involves the respiratory tract, but any organ in the body can be affected. In recent years, extrapulmonary TB cases have significantly increased due to the prevalence of immunocompromised patients. Here, we report a case of unilateral ankle arthritis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines had a great impact on world health and well-being. However, various adverse events have been observed following COVID-19 vaccination. Cutaneous reactions have been prevalent following many vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we present a case of new-onset lichen planus in a COVID-19 patient.