This work presents an investigation on the numerical simulation of a layered piezoelectric system using the complex finite element method (ZFEM). This approach allows the standard FEM solution to provide information about the design sensitivity of the mechanical displacement and voltage potential fields with respect to small variations in the material properties of the system. The layered body is formed by PZT-4 and PZT-5 stacked together. Results show that the design sensitivities of the soft grounded piezoelectric are larger compared to those of PZT-4 for the specific configuration analyzed. For solution verification purposes. The standard steady state solution was compared against a commercial FEM package and the error obtained was less than 4%.
In the upcoming epochs, conventional energy may deplete soon. Thus, the use of conventional energy in the power industries need to be supplemented by non-conventional energy resources. This would result in loss of synchronisms in the power grids owing to the fact that solar and wind alternate their attributes expeditiously with change in atmospheric phenomenon. To ameliorate frequency deviation within a specific range automatic generation control (AGC) implements forced allowance on system operation. A three area thermal with photovoltaic (PV), electric vehicle (EV), wind system is considered under deregulated environment to develop and to judge the efficacy of newly developed cascade fractional order hybrid controller combination of (FOTID & 3DOF-PID). Comparing the aforementioned controller to other controllers such as the three degree of freedom proportional-integral-derivative (3DOF-PID), the fractional order tilt-integral-derivative (FOTID), and the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) justifies the system’s effectiveness. This assessment has been accomplished by a trendy optimization technique such as hybrid whale optimization algorithm (HWOT). However, the main intent of this write-up is to fabricate a cascade fractional order (CC-FO) hybrid controller that would act as the new control mechanism for the proposed system under deregulated scenario. It has been found that the suggested CC-FO hybrid controller stabilises the system ( i.e., Under step load disruptions, frequency deviation and tie-line power become zero) in the shortest amount of time possible. Additionally, it is seen that the recommended controller can control a wide range of nominal loading circumstances and system characteristics, demonstrating its robustness.
In this article, the performance analysis of recessed gate and field-plated III-nitride Nano-HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) developed on β-Ga 2O 3 substrate with and without AlN spacer layer is studied. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the AlGaN/GaN interface is crucial in changing the characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The different transport, DC, and AC characteristics of the proposed III-nitride HEMT with spacer layer are numerically simulated and compared with the HEMT without spacer layer. The major findings of this research demonstrate that the AlN spacer layers large band off set, strong polarisation field, and high barrier allow the increased concentration of 2DEG, when it is introduced between AlGaN/GaN interface. Furthermore, the AlN layer moves the 2DEG distribution shifts from the surface, which diminishes interface scattering. Further, AlN thickness variation influences the polarisation field and conduction band offset, which impacts the concentration and mobility of 2DEG.